Урок №10

В этом уроке мы представляем вам список слов и выражений, необходимых для написания эссе.


          Words and phrases to organize points chronologically (to introduce a series of reasons, ideas, remarks, etc):

          first(ly)/first of all ; second(ly); third(ly);
          lastly/last of all/finally (наконец; в заключение);
          first and foremost (в первую очередь);
          in the first/second/third place;
          to start/begin with;
          for one thing (прежде всего; начать с того, что; для начала);
          for another thing (кроме того; во вторых).

Note: firstly, secondly... is more formal than first, second...

Eg: The aim of the test was first and foremost to give confidence to the students.

Eg: There are several reasons why students may prefer to live in dorms: first(ly), it is cheaper to live in a dorm than to rent an apartment, second(ly), students do not have to spend much time to get to school because dorms are usually located on campus, and lastly/last of all/finally, students may have a more active social life. (TOEFL writing question # 36 - см. информационный бюллетень за 1999-2000 гг.)

Eg: There are two main reasons why these countries should not involve themselves with nuclear energy at the present time. In the first place/For one thing, they have ample supplies of both oil and hydroelectric energy from which to generate electricity. For another thing/Secondly, ...

          Words and phrases to indicate the addition of a new point, or to introduce a related topic:

          in addition;
          what is more/more than that/furthermore(formal)/ moreover/(more formal) (более того; кроме того);
          another thing is that...
          above all/on top of that (в довершение всего);
          as well as (так же (как); не только...,но; в дополнение; помимо);
          alongside (наряду с);
          besides/apart from (кроме);
          besides (к тому же; particularly when adding a negative idea); similarly/equally/likewise (подобным образом);
          a word must be said about...;
          it is important to note that...

Eg: In addition to (having)a BA degree in Psychology, he also has an MBA. (MBA - Master of Business Administration)

Eg: (from a letter of recommendation)... In addition, her education in Speech Communication and work as a teacher has provided a great deal of public speaking and presentation experience. What is more/On top of that, she is particularly good in a fast-paced environment with challenges and with co-workers as enthusiastic as herself.

Eg: Alongside his many other responsibilities, he now has to be in charge of staff training.

Eg: Although I feel that life might be less interesting if we knew everything that would happen in the future, there are certain details about my own life which I am nearly dying of curiosity to find out. ... Apart from/Besides my personal life, I would be very interested to know what the world will be like in the next century, and in the next millenium. (TOEFL writing question # 100)

Eg: Now it is generally believed that professional sports affects health in a negative way. Besides, violence, greed, and corruption are clearly the antitheses of the athletic ideal. (TOEFL writing question # 98)

Eg: It is important to note that professional athletes often finish their careers not because they are of retirement age, but because they are physically damaged.

Eg: Physical labor can exhaust the body very quickly. Similarly/Equally/Likewise, excessive study can rapidly reduce mental powers.

          as well as

Eg: He was a real scholar as well as a great composer. (= He is not only a great composer, but also a real scholar.)

          He is intelligent as well as good-looking. (= He is not only good-looking, but also intelligent.)
          She composes music as well as plays the piano. (= She not only plays the piano but also composes music.)

Note: In BrE, when they put a verb after as well as, they most often use the -ing form. (См. Swan M. Practical English Usage, Oxford, 1997)

Eg: She sings as well as playing the piano.

          As well as doing well on the exams, she wrote a very good term paper.

Мы продолжим список слов и выражений в следующем уроке.

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