В этом уроке мы продолжим работу со словами и выражениями для написания эссе.
WORDS AND PHRASES FOR AN ESSAY
Words and phrases that indicate a concession, a contrast or contradiction of a point previously stated:
while - хотя; несмотря на то, что;
whereas - тогда как; в то время как;
in contrast/by contrast/on the contrary - наоборот; напротив;
however/nonetheless/nevertheless - однако; тем не менее;
however - как бы...ни (союз, вводящий уступительное придаточное предложение);
yet/still - тем не менее; однако; всё же; всё-таки;
although/though - 1)хотя; 2) тем не менее, однако; всё же; всё-таки;
despite the fact that... - несмотря на тот факт, что...;
in spite of something/despite something - несмотря на;
notwithstanding - несмотря на; вопреки;
Note: Compare notwithstanding, despite, in spite of. Notwithstanding is formal and the weakest of the three terms used to indicate opposition. In spite of is the strongest in this group.
all the same - всё же; всё-таки;
be that as it may - как бы то ни было;
instead (of this) - взамен; вместо этого;
unlike smb or smth - в отличие от кого-либо или чего-либо;
on the other hand - с другой стороны;
rather than - ... а не ...;
contrary to popular belief - вопреки общеизвестному мнению;
to express one’s sharp disagreement with/to strongly disapprove of - выражать полное несогласие/быть категорически против;
to oppose (an idea/plan/matter etc) - выступать против/иметь возражения по... ;
The most common argument against this is that... - Наиболее часто употребляемым аргументом против этого является ...;
to put forward/present arguments against... - выдвигать/представлять аргументы против...;
a weak/strong/convincing/fundamental argument against... - слабый/веский/убедительный/основной аргумент против...;
This argument does not hold water. - Этот аргумент не выдерживает никакой критики.
The argument is not logically sound./This is not a sound argument/There are holes in the argument. (Выражения для описания нелогичного, непоследовательного аргумента.)
Eg: While/Whereas some people condemn television as a negative influence on the overall mental development of children and their behavior, others praise it for its contribution to children’s education and upbringing. (TOEFL writing question # 63)
Eg: It is sometimes argued that many of the world’s problems would disappear if people everywhere spoke the same language. By conrast/In contrast/On the contrary, many people regard the idea of an international language as foolish and impractical. (TOEFL writing queston # 80)
Eg: Arguments presented by proponents/supporters of vegetarianism: The argument is sometimes put forward that man is not naturally a vegetarian. While such a claim may contain a grain of truth, it however/nevertheless/nonetheless ignores the obvious fact that there are many aspects of the original human condition that we have seen fit* to improve. (*to see/think fit to do smth - считать нужным/целесообразным делать что-либо) Arguments presented by opponents of vegetarianism: Those who support vegetarianism insist/point out that such a course is both spiritually and physically beneficial. However/Nonetheless/Nevertheless/Be that as it may, there is no evidence that vegetarians are exceptionally healthy or less agressive only because they do not eat meat.
Eg: He is not the man for the job, however enthusiastically he may be recommended.
Eg: Arguments for (in favor of) and against small-town/countryside life: It is true that city-dwellers have access to certain facilities such as theatres, museums or funfairs that may be denied to the inhabitants of small towns or countryside. Yet/Still there are a number of disadvantages of living in a big city. The main point here is that people are exposed to a lot of stress because of the hustle and bustle of big-city life. (TOEFL writing questions # 57 and # 84)
Eg: I believe that we should not spend so much of our limited national budget on space exploration. Instead, we should spend more on improving essential social programs. (TOEFL writing question # 79)
Eg: Arguments presented by opponents of the view that live theater is dying: Of course the theater has suffered from competition that takes advantage of modern technology. All the same, there is a qualitative difference in being present at an actual performance which, though it may be a luxury, will never be replaced by second-hand audience participation.
Eg: Unlike his predecessor, the new program coordinator has an ability to manage multiple priorities quickly and effectively.
Eg: Contrary to popular belief, I hold the opinion that television helps stimulate rather than destroy communication among family and friends. Television viewing is often an activity that people do together, discussing the various programs they watch. (TOEFL writing question # 68)
Eg: Arguments against cars as means of transportation: Their tremendous advantage for transportation notwithstanding, cars simply cause too much pollution. Secondly, the production and operation of cars waste a huge portion of the earth’s natural resources. Thus, it is critical that we spend money on improving public transportation - or even offering free public transportation! - so that people will prefer riding subways, buses, commuter trains, etc., to traveling in their cars. (TOEFL writing question # 115)
Вы заметили, что многие из этих слов и выражений имеют одинаковые значения. Просмотрите нижеследующие варианты:
1) Although/Though/ Even though he has undoubted talents, he is not the man for the job.
2) Despite/In spite of/Notwithstanding (the last one is formal) his undoubted talents, he is not the man for the job.
3) He is not the man for the job, his undoubted talents notwithstanding.
4) He has undoubted talents; nevertheless/nonetheless/however/yet he is not the man for the job.
Мы продолжим работу со словами и выражениями для написания эссе в следующем уроке.