В этом уроке мы продолжаем работу со словами и выражениями для сочинения.
Запомните следующие выражения:
it is common knowledge that.../it is generally believed that... - общеизвестно, что...; является общепризнанным тот факт, что...;
to dispute the commonly expressed opinion - оспаривать общеизвестное мнение;
to bring to (a) conclusion - завершить; привести к заключению;
to come to the conclusion - прийти к выводу (о том, что...);
to draw a conclusion - делать вывод;
to jump to a conclusion - делать поспешный вывод;
to be careful with one’s conclusions - быть осторожным с выводами;
to make a deduction (about)/to deduce (from)/to infer (from, about) - делать вывод/заключение (из чего-либо; о чём-либо/о ком-либо);
Eg: What can be inferred from the situation? What can be inferred about the speakers? (Вопросы, задаваемые после прослушивания диалогов - TOEFL, Listening Comprehension, Part A) A large number of facts can be inferred from archaeological data.
Eg: It is common knowledge that smoking *affects health in a negative way. *to affect (verb); an effect (noun)
Eg: I have come to the conclusion that we have made a mistake.
Eg: People should be careful not to jump to conclusions.
Предлагаем вашему вниманию ещё один образец сочинения на одну из тем, указанных в информационном бюллетене TOEFL (Computer-Based Testing) за 1999-2000 гг. Обратите внимание на выделенные слова и выражения.
TOEFL WRITING TOPIC # 111
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A sense of humor can sometimes be helpful in difficult situations. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
They say laughter is the best medicine. One might add that it is a great problem solver on many other levels. That is, a good sense of humor can sometimes help a person out of difficult situations.
For one thing, humor often helps to break the ice when two people meet for the first time. Especially when the circumstances under which the two people meet are somehow awkward, a subtle joke or ironic comment can make it easier for them to feel comfortable talking with one another. Indeed, humor may help two people get to know each other quickly and establish a friendship.
In some cases, laughter may even resolve conflict. For instance, when two or more people strongly disagree on some point and find themselves in a heated discussion, an unexpected humorous remark may relieve some of the tension. If the quarrelers see some humor in their dispute, they might forget their disagreements and avoid potentially serious conflict.
A sense of humor can also be a very helpful means of relieving stress. The ability to take on a light-hearted attitude and laugh at one’s own problems can considerably decrease the amount of stress in one’s life. In this sense, humor can save a person from the depression and anxiety that stress often causes.
In sum, a sense of humor has a strong potential to make difficult or unpleasant situations better. One might even say that those who have a keen sense of humor often experience fewer difficulties and less stress than people without such a well-developed sense of the lighter side of life.